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Indisputable Historical Facts: French has proved that Hoang Sa (Paracel) and Truong Sa (Spratly) Islands are Vietnam’s sovereignty

service du secrétariat général france

Vietnam was a French colony.

During World War II, Japan has been staying a long time in Vietnam. Vietnam and Japan have abundant evidence that the Hoang Sa (Paracel) and Truong Sa (Spratly) Islands belong to Vietnam.

This fact frightens the Chinese communists.

On the continuity of real possession, Dr. Tran Cong Luc has given some very concrete and meaningful historical milestones: As the representative of the State of Vietnam in foreign affairs during the Vietnam period was a French colony, France continued to exercise Vietnam's sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly archipelagos.

Under the Treaty of Patenotre in 1884, the French colonial administration carried out activities representing the Vietnamese State in the continuation of the protection, governance, and affirmation of Vietnam's sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly archipelagos.

Specifically, after a period of research and fieldwork conducted by scientists and exchanges between French politicians related to the Paracel and Spratly Islands, on 8/3/1925, Governor-General of Indochina declared that Paracel and Spratly archipelagos are part of French colonial territory.

On March 19, 1926, the governor of “Cochinchine” granted a mining license to Spratly Island for the phosphate company of Tonkin.

On April 13, 1930, an “information ship” named Malicieuse commandeered by Captain De Lattre headed for the Spratly Islands under the directions of the Governor-General of Indochina to set up the sovereign marks of the Indochinese Islands. De Lattre also stationed at the Spratly Islands and supervised surrounding the smaller islands and shoreline landing strips as well…

On September 23, 1930, following the international protocol, the French government sent diplomatic correspondence to the great powers over the fact that the Spratly Islands were occupied by the French.

On December 31, 1930, the Foreign Relations Office of the Governor-General of Indochina sent a report to the Prime Minister, Minister of the French Colonies on the activities of occupying the Spratly Islands and its surrounding islands along with the research materials regarding the Legal matter of this occupation.

On January 4, 1932, the French Government sent a governmental note to the French embassy in Paris confirming French sovereignty over the Paracels and proposed settlement of the dispute through friendly negotiations or international arbitration. The Communist Chinese denied this offer.

On February 18, 1937, France formally requested the Chinese to apply international arbitration to determine the sovereignty over Paracel archipelago; Again, Chinese rejected.

On November 26, 1937, France sent Chief Engineer J. Gauthier to Paracel to study the locations for building the lighthouses, parking lots for hydroplanes; and studying the settlement conditions in the archipelago.

In 1938, France dispatched its “Regional Security” forces to station on the islands and built a lighthouse; a meteorological station which was registered with the World Meteorological Organization (registration # 48859) on the island of Phu Lam; a wireless station TSF on the Paracel Islands.

On March 30, 1938, Emperor Bao Dai signed the Ordinance No. 10 to merge Paracel into Thua Thien province rather than (Quang) Nam – (Quang) Ngai as before.

On June 15, 1938, France completed the meteorological station on Ba Binh Island, a part of Spratly archipelago

On June 15, 1938, Governor-General of Indochina Jules Brevie signed Decree # 156-S-V to establish an administrative unit for Paracel archipelago in Thua Thien province.

Also in June 1938, a unit of Vietnam’s Reginal Security Forces was stationed in the Paracel archipelago. An Event Marl of sovereignty has been erected on the island of Paracel inscribed with the words as follows: "The Republic of Franco-Empire of Vietnam’s Paracel archipelago since 1816, dated 1938."

During World War II, Japan declared merging islands in the South China Sea into territories occupied by Japan.

On April 4, 1939, the French Government sent a Governmental Note of protest to the mentioned-above Japanese decisions; and protect the French right over the Paracels and Spratly islands.

On August 15, 1945, Japan lost the war; and withdrew from Indochina;

and on August 26, 1945, Japanese troops had to withdraw from Hoang Sa (Paracel) and Truong Sa (Spratly) archipelagos.

Right after the Japanese withdrawal, an extremely complex situation opened up a new and strange era.

Dr. Truc said that in the historical context of late 1946, early 1947, despite Vietnam's declaration of independence on September 2, 1945, no longer tied to the 1884 Patenotre Agreement. On the other hand, the French Government, According to the preliminary agreement of March 6, 1946, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (aka the Communist Vietnam) was still part of the French Union. As such, the French diplomacy was still responsible for enforcing Vietnam's right to represent Vietnam in the fight against any foreign forces trying to violate the Vietnam's sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly Islands.

Under the Treaty of March 8, 1949, France established a pro-French government, called the Vietnamese State, headed by former Emperor Bao Dai. However, in practice, French troops still had the East Sea in their control, including the Paracels and Spratlys.

Also in 1949, the World Meteorological Organization accepted the French’s application to list the French-based meteorological stations in the Paracel Islands and the Spratly Islands as a list of world meteorological stations: Phu Lam number 48859, Hoang Sa Station number 48860, and Ba Binh Station number 48419.

On October 14, 1950, the Governor General of Central Vietnam Phan Van Giao chaired the handover over the Paracel archipelago between the French Government and Bao Dai Government.

From September 5 to September 8, 1951, the San Francisco Symposium was attended by representatives from 51 countries who signed the treaty with Japan. At the plenary session on Sept. 5, with 48 abstentions, three votes in favor, the conference rejected the proposal made by Secretary of State Gromyko (former Soviet Union) to amend paragraph 13 of the Draft. The Draft contains: Japan acknowledges the People Republic of China (Communist China)'s sovereignty over the Paracels and the islands further south.

On September 7, 1951, Prime Minister and (in lieu) Minister of State of Vietnam Tran Van Huu solemnly declared the two archipelagos Hoang Sa (Paracel) and Truong Sa (Spratly) as the territory of Vietnam. No participant in this conference commented anything on this statement.

On September 8, 1951, the treaty with Japan was signed. Article 2, Paragraph 7, of the Treaty, states: "Japan renounced its sovereignty, title, and ambition for the Paracel and Spratly Islands" (Paragraph f).

On July 20, 1954, the signed Geneva Agreement recognized Vietnam as a country with independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity. Article 1 of the Agreement provides for the Ben Hai River (parallel 17) as a temporary demarcation line to distribute territorial management rights between the two North-South regions of Vietnam. This temporary frontier is also extended by a straight line from the coast to the sea (Article 4). The Paracel Islands and the Spratly Islands are located under the 17th parallel, so they are under the administration of the South Vietnamese government.

In April 1956, when the French Expeditionary Army withdrew from Indochina, the Vietnamese National Army, later the Republic of (South) Vietnam, took over the Hoang Sa(Paracel) archipelago. Before the invasion of some islands in the Paracels and Spratly Islands by the Chinese Communists at the time of this transition, the Government of the Republic of Vietnam has voiced its opposition.

On May 24 and June 8, 1956, the Government of the Republic of Vietnam issued a statement stressing that the Paracel and the Spratly Islands "were always part of Vietnam" and claimed assertion of sovereignty; Long ago in Vietnam.

On July 13, 1971, at the ASPEC Manila Conference, Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Viet Nam Tran Van Lam declared the Hoang Sa (Paracel) and Truong Sa (Spratly) archipelagoes under Vietnamese sovereignty.

From January 17 to January 20, 1974, the Chinese Navy mobilized military forces to occupy the western part of the Paracel Sa archipelago. On the diplomatic front, the Republic of Vietnam has strongly protested against the United Nations and the international community.
Translated English version by Van G. Tran
(Source: NGUYEN VAN MUI’s blog)

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